(Word file)


Peer Reviewed Publications - 2021

128) Chang et al (including S.A. Christopher), Evaluating Modeled aerosol optical depths over the southeast Atlantic against the NASA ORACLES aircraft measurements during 2016 and 2017, to be submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion

127) Ma, Z., S. Dey, S.A. Christopher, R. Liu, J. Bi, P. Balyan, Y. Liu, A review of statistical methods used for developing large scale and long term PM2.5 models from satellite data, submitted to Remote Sensing of Environment

126) Le Roux, J., S.A. Christopher, and M. Maskey, Exploring the Use of PlanetScope Data for Particulate Matter Air Quality Research, Remote Sensing, revised version submitted, June 2021.

125) Chang et al (including S.A. Christopher), Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of aerosol and cloud properties over the southeast Atlantic: An observational analysis, Geophysical Research Letters, 48, e2020GL091469.

124) Xue, Z, P. Gupta, S.A. Christopher, Satellite-based estimation of the impacts of summer time wildfires in North Western United States and Canada on Particulate Matter Air quality in United States, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, revised version submitted, June 2021

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2020

124) Gupta,P., L. Remer, F. Patadia, R. Levy, S.A. Christopher, High Resolution Level 3 Gridded Aerosol Optical Depth Product from MODIS, Remote Sensing, 12(17), 2847; 2020..

123) Christopher, S.A., and P. Gupta, Global Distribution of Column Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth to Surface PM2.5 Relationships, Remote Sensing,12, 1985; doi:10.3390/rs1212198, 2020..

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2019

121) Pullman, M., M. Maskey, R. Ramachandran, S.A. Christopher, I. Gurung, 2019: Applying Deep Learning to Hail Detection: A Case Study, IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 10, 57(12), 10218-10225

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2018

120) Menon, V., Q. Du., S.A. Christopher, Improved Random Projection with K-Means Clustering for Hyperspectral Image Classification, IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 4768-4771 

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2017

119) Kaulfus, A. S., U. Nair, D. A. Jaffe, S. Christopher, and S. Goodrick, 2017: Biomass burning smoke climatology of the United States: Implications for particulate matter air quality. Environ. Sci. Technol., doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b03292

118) Contreras,A., J. Zhang, J, Reid, and, S.A. Christopher, A Study of the Longer Term Variation of Aerosol Optical Thickness and Direct Shortwave Aerosol Radiative Effect Trends Using MODIS and CERES,Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 13849–13868, 2017 file)

117) Chang, I. & Christopher, S. A. (2017). The impact of seasonalities on direct radiative effects and radiative heating rates of absorbing aerosols above clouds. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 143(704), 1395–1405. (pdf file)

AMS Presentation| AGU-Chang-Poster |AGU-Kaulfus-presentation|

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2016

116) Chang, Y.Y., and S.A. Christopher,  Identifying Aerosols above Clouds using the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 54(6), 3163-3173, 2016, (pdf file)

AGU-poster| AMS Poster|

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2015 (1)

115)Feng, N., and S. A. Christopher (2015), Measurement-based estimates of direct radiative effects of absorbing aerosols above clouds, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023252. (pdf file).

AGU Poster|

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2014 (5)

114) Feng, N., and S.A. Christopher, Clear sky direct radiative effects of aerosols over Southeast Asia based on satellite observations and radiative transfer calculations, 152, 333-344, 2014. (pdf file).

113) Guo, Y., N. Feng, S.A. Christopher, S. Hong, P. Kong, Estimation of fine particulate matter air quality over Beijing using satellite measurements, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 35(17), 2014

112) Christopher, S. A.: Simulation of GOES-R ABI aerosol radiances using WRF-CMAQ: a case study approach, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 13, 18713-18748, doi:10.5194/acpd-13-18713-2013, 2013, pdf file.

111) Naeger, A. R. and Christopher, S. A.: The identification and tracking of volcanic ash using the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Imager (SEVIRI), Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss., 6, 5577-5619, doi:10.5194/amtd-6-5577-2013, 2013, pdf file.

110 ) Patadia, F., and S.A. Christopher, Assessment of Smoke Shortwave Radiative Forcing using Empirical Angular Distributiom Models, Remote Sensing of Environment, 140, 233-240), 2014, (pdf file).

Peer Reviewed Publications - (5) 2013

109) Naeger, A., S.A. Christopher, B. Johnson, Multi-platform analysis of the radiative effects and heating rates of an intense dust storm on June 21, 2007, Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 118, 1-14, 2013, pdf file.

108) Feng, N., and S. A. Christopher (2013), Satellite and surface-based remote sensing of Southeast Asian aerosols and their radiative effects, Atmospheric Research122, 544-554 (pdf file)

107) Fisher, A., A. Frendi, and S. A. Christopher (2013), Using satellite remote sensing to monitor rocket launch induced pollution, International Journal of Remote Sensing34(1), 60-72. (pdf file)

106)Naeger, A. R., S. A. Christopher, R. Ferrare, and Z. Liu (2013), A new technique using infrared satellite measurements to improve the accuracy of the CALIPSO cloud-aerosol discrimination method, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing51(1), 642-653. (pdf file)

105) Reid, J. S., et al. (2013), Observing and understanding the Southeast Asian aerosol system by remote sensing: An initial review and analysis for the Seven Southeast Asian Studies (7SEAS) program, Atmospheric Research122, 403-468. (pdf file)

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2012

104) Huff, A.K., R.M. Hoff, S. Kondragunta, H. Zhang, P. Ciren, C. Xu, S.A. Christopher, E-S. Yang, J. Szykman, The Air Quality Proving Ground (AQPG):Preparing the Air Quality Community for Next Generation Products from the GOES-R Satellite, Air and Waste Management Association, 32-37, November, 2012 (pdf file).

103) Christopher , S.A., N. Feng, A. Naeger, B. Johnson, F. Marenco, Satellite remote sensing analysis of the 2010 Eyjafjallajokull volcanic ash cloud over the North Sea during May 4-May18, 2010, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2011JD016850,2012, (pdf file).

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2011 (10

102) Superczynski, S., and S. A. Christopher, Exploring Land Use and Land Cover Effects on Air Quality in Central Alabama using GIS and Remote Sensing, Remote Sensing, Remote Sens. 20113(12), 2552-2567; doi:10.3390/rs3122552, (pdf file)

101) Haywood, B.T. Johnson, S.R. Osborne, A.J. Baran, M. Brooks, S.F. Milton, J. Mulcahy, D. Walters, R.P. Allan, M.J. Woodage, A. Klaver, P. Formenti, H.E. Brindley, S. A. Christopher, P. GuptaMotivation, rationale, and key results from the GERBILS Saharan dust measurement campaign, to be submitted to Q. J. Royal. Met. Soc., (pdf file), 137, 1106-1116, 2011.

100) Christopher, S.A., P. Gupta, B. Johnson, and J. Haywood, Multi-sensor satellite remote sensing of dust aerosols over North Africa during GERBILS, Quarterly J. of Royal Met. Soc., (pdf file), 137, 1168-1178, doi:10.1102/qj.863, 2011.

99) Johnson, B.T., M.E. Brooks, D. Walters, S. A. Christopher, K. Schepanski, Assessment of the Met Office dust forecast model using observations from the GERBILS campaign, Quarterly J. of Royal Met. Soc., (pdf file), 137, 1131-1138, doi:10.1002/qj.736, 2011.

98) F. Patadia, S. A. Christopher, and J. Zhang (2011), Development of empirical angular distribution models for smoke aerosols: Methods, J. Geophys. Res.116, D14203, doi:10.1029/2010JD015033(pdf file), 2011.

97) Fairman, J. G., Jr., U. S. Nair, S. A. Christopher, and T. Mölg (2011), Land use change impacts on regional climate over Kilimanjaro, J. Geophys. Res.116,D03110, doi:10.1029/2010JD014712, (pdf file).

96) T.A. Jones and S. A. Christopher, Jones, .: A reanalysis of MODIS fine mode fraction over ocean using OMI and daily GOCART simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 5805-5817, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5805-2011, 201, (pdf file), 2011.

95)Christopher, S.A., Satellite remote sensing methods for estimating clear Sky shortwave Top of atmosphere fluxes used for aerosol studies over the global oceans, Remote Sensing of Environment (2011), doi:10.1016/j.rse.2011.06.003, 2011 (pdf file).

94) Yang, E., S. A. Christopher, S. Kondragunta, and X. Zhang (2011), Use of hourly Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) fire emissions in a Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for improving surface particulate matter predictions, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D04303, doi:10.1029/2010JD014482.
(pdf file).

93) T.A. Jones and S. A. Christopher, A Multi-sensor approach for Assessing the Impacts of Ultraviolet - Absorbing Aerosols on Top of Atmosphere Radiative Fluxes, Int. J. Rem. Sensing, 32(16), 4659-4682 (pdf file).

Lacorte, S.G., A Neural Network Approach to tornado forecasting in North Alabama and SOuthern Middle Tennessee (pdf file) - M.S. thesis

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2010 (8)

92) Nair, U. S., R. McNider, F. Patadia, S. A. Christopher, and K. Fuller (2011), Sensitivity of nocturnal boundary layer temperature to tropospheric aerosol surface radiative forcing under clear-sky conditions, J. Geophys. Res.116, D02205, doi:10.1029/2010JD014068. - (pdf file).

91) Christopher, S.A., & Jones, T.A., Satellite and surface-based remote sensing of Saharan dust aerosols, Remote Sensing of Environment (2010), doi:10.1016/j.rse.2009.12.007 - (pdf file), 2010.

90) S.A. Christopher and P. Gupta, Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter Air Quality: The Cloud Cover Problem, J. Air and Waste Management, 60, 596-602. (pdf file), 2010.

89) Jones, T.A., and S.A. Christopher, Satellite and Radar Remote Sensing of of Southern Plains grassfires : A case study, J. Applied Meteorology and Climatology - (pdf file), 49, 2133-2146, 2010.

88) Jones, T.A., and S. A. Christopher, Statistical properties of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in South America, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 2287-2305, (pdf file), 2010.

87) Anantharaj, V.G., U.S. Nair, P. Lawrence, T.N. Chase, S. A. Christopher, and T.A. Jones, Comparions of Satellite-derived TOA Shortwave Fluxes to Estimates from GCM Simulations Constrained by Satellite Observations of Land Characteristics, International J. Climate (pdf file), DOI:10.1002/joc.2107, 2010.

86) T.A. Jones and S. A. Christopher, Assessment of temperature and humidity changes associated with the September 2009 dust storm in Australia, Geoscience Research Letters (pdf file), 99, 268-272, doi:10.1109/LGRS.2010.2063693.

85) Jones, T.A., and S. A. Christopher, Satellite and Radar Observations of the 9 April 2009 Texas and Oklahoma Grassfires, Bulletin of Amer. Meteor. Soc, DOI:10.1175/2009BAMS2919.1,(pdf file), 2010.

Patadia, F., Satellite-based assessment of aerosol radiative forcing over land with improved smoke angular models - A Ph.D. dissertation, 2010 - (pdf file).

Superczynski, S., Land use and land cover impacts on air quality : A GIS and Remote Sensing Approach, M.S. thesis (pdf file), 2010.

S.A. Christopher, Book Chapter, Satellite Remote Sensing of Global Air Quality,Environmental Remote Sensing, (pdf file), 2010.

Guo, J., X. Zahng, C. Cao, H. Che, H. Liu, P. Gupta, H. Zhang, M. Xu, X. Li., Monitoring haze episodes over the yellow Sea by Combining multisensor measurements, Int. J. Rem. Sens., 31, 4743-4755. (pdf file)

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2009 (16) 

84) Wu, Y., Nair, U., R.A. Pielke, R.T. McNider, S.A. Christopher, V. Anantharaj, Impact of LandSurface Heterogeneity on mesoscale atmospheric dispersion, Boundary Layer Meteorology, (pdf file) 133, 10.1007/s10546-009-9415-1, 2009 

83) Yang, E.-S., P. Gupta, and S. A. Christopher (2009), Net radiative effect of dust aerosols from satellite measurements over Sahara, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L18812, doi:10.1029/2009GL039801. (pdf file).

82) Gupta, P., and S. A. Christopher (2009), Particulate matter air quality assessment using integrated surface, satellite, and meteorological products: 2. A neural network approach, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D20205, doi:10.1029/2008JD011497.(pdf file). 

81)Reid, J.S., E.J. Hyer, E.M. prins, D.L.Westphal, J. Zhang, J. Wang, S.A. Christopher, C.A. Curtis, C.C. Schmidt, D.L. Eleuterio, and J. Hoffman, GLobal monitoring and forecasting of biomass-burning smoke:Description and lessons from the Fire Locating and modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) program,IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, 2, 144-162, 2009 (pdf file)

80) Jones, T.A., S.A. Christopher, and W. Petersen, Dual Polarimetric and dual wavelength radar characteristics of an apartment fire, J. Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 27, 2257-2269 (pdf file).

79) Patadia, F., E.-S. Yang, and S. A. Christopher (2009), Does dust change the clear sky top of atmosphere shortwave flux over high surface reflectance regions?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L15825, doi:10.1029/2009GL039092 - (pdf file).

78)Christopher, S.A., P. Gupta, U. Nair, T.A. Jones, S. Kondragunta, Y. Wu, J. Hand, X. Zhang, Satellite Remote Sensing and Mesoscale Modeling of the 2007 Florida/Georgia Fires, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (JSTARS-2009-00020), 26, 1-13. - (pdf file)

77)Gupta, P., and S. A. Christopher (2009), Particulate matter air quality assessment using integrated surface, satellite, and meteorological products: Multiple regression approach, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D14205, doi:10.1029/2008JD011496. (pdf file).

76)Hoff, R., S.A. Christopher, Remote Sensing of Particualte Matter Air Pollution from Space : Have we reached the promised land, J. Air&Waste Manage. Assoc., 59:642-675 - (pdf  file) , May, 2009.

75) Johnson, B.T., S.A. Christopher, J.M. Haywood, and S.R. Osborne, Measurements of aerosol properties from aircraft, satellite and ground-based remote sensing : A case study from the Dust and Biomass Burning Experiment (DABEX), Q. J. Royal Met. Soc., 135 (641), 922-934.(pdf file).

74) Radhi, M., M.A. Box, G.P. Box, S.A. Christopher, P. Gupta, Evolution of the Optical Properties of Biomass Burning Aerosol During the 2003 South-eastern Australian Bushfires, Applied optics 48(9):1764-73, 2009 Mar 20 (pdf file

73) Christopher, S. A., B. Johnson, T. A. Jones, and J. Haywood (2009), Vertical and spatial distribution of dust from aircraft and satellite measurements during the GERBILS field campaign, Geophys Res. Lett., 36, L06806, doi:10.1029/2008GL037033 - (pdf file).

72) Myhre, G., T. F. Berglen, C.R. Hoyle, S.A. Christopher, J. Crosier, P. Formenti, J.M. Haywood, M. Johnsrud, T.A. Jones, N. Loeb, S. Osborne, L.A. Remer, Modeling of chemical and physical aerosol properties during the ADRIEX aerosol campaign,  Q. J. Royal Met. Soc. , 135, 53-66 2009. (pdf file)

71) T. A. Jones, and S.A. Christopher, Injection heights of biomass burning debris estimated from WSR-88D radar observations-  Transactions of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 47(8), 2599-2605. (pdf file)   (AMS Extended abstract)

70) Jones, T.A., S.A. Christopher, and J. Qaas, A six year satellite-based assessment of the regional variations of aerosol indirect effects, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 4091-4114, 2009. (pdf file

69) Myhre, G., T.F. Berglen, M. Johnrsud, C.R. Hoyle, T.K. Bernesten, S.A. Christopher, D.W. Fahey, I.S.A. Isaksen, T.A. Jones, R.A. Kahn, N. Loeb, P. Quinn, L. Remer, J.P. Schwarz, K.E. Yttri, Radiative Forcing of the direct aerosol effect using a multi-observation approach, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 1365-1392, 2009. (pdf file).

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2008 (14)

68) Haywood, J., N. Bharmal, M. Brooks, G. Capes, C. Chou, H. Coe, S. A. Christopher, J. Cuesta, Y. Derimian, P. Forment, B. Johnson, S. Osborne, S. Milton, G. Greed, M. Harrison, B. Heese, E. Highwood, M. Mallet, J. Marsham, G. Myhre, D. Parker, J. Pelon, J-L. Rajot, T. Slingo, D. Tanre, P. Tulet, Overview of the Dust and biomass burning Experiment and African Multidisciplinary Mpnsoon Analysis Special Observation period, submitted to J. Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 113, doi:10.1029/2008JD010077, (pdf file)

67) Gupta, P., and S.A. Christopher, An evaluation of Terra-MODIS sampling for monthly and annual particulate matter air quality assessment over the Southeastern United States, Atmospheric Environment, 42, 6465-6471, 2008. - (pdf file)

66) Christopher, S. A., P. Gupta, J. Haywood, and G. Greed (2008), Aerosol optical thicknesses over North Africa: 1. Development of a product for model validation using Ozone Monitoring Instrument, Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, and Aerosol Robotic Network, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D00C04, doi:10.1029/2007JD009446.(pdf file) 

66) Greed, G., J. M. Haywood, S. Milton, A. Keil, S. Christopher, P. Gupta, and E. J. Highwood (2008), Aerosol optical depths over North Africa: 2. Modeling and model validation, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D00C05, doi:10.1029/2007JD009457. - (pdf file)

65) T.A. Jones, and S.A. Christopher, Multi-spectral analysis of aerosol type using principal component analysis, IEEE Trans. Geoscience Remote Sensing,  46(9), 1-7. (pdf file)

64) S.A. Christopher and T. A. Jones, (2008) Short-wave aerosol radiative efficiency over the global oceans derived from satellite data. Tellus B 0(0): 080529042315537- (pdf file)

63) Gupta, S.A., and S.A. Christopher, Seven Year Particulate Matter Air Quality Assessment from Surface and Satellite Measurements, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion, 8, 3311-3324, 2008- (pdf file)

62) Patadia, F., P. Gupta, S. A. Christopher, and J. S. Reid (2008), A Multisensor satellite-based assessment of biomass burning aerosol radiative impact over Amazonia, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D12214, doi:10.1029/2007JD009486 - (pdf file

61) Bellouin, N., A. Jones, J. Haywood, and S. A. Christopher (2008), Updated estimate of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite observations and comparison against the Hadley Centre climate model, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D10205, doi:10.1029/2007JD009385 (pdf file)

60) Gupta, P., F. Patadia, S.A. Christopher, Multi-sensor data product fusion for aerosol research, IEEE Trans. Geoscience Remote Sensing, special issue on data fusion, 46 (5), 2008 (pdf file)

59) Christopher, S.A.; Jones, T.A.  Sample Bias Estimation for Cloud-Free Aerosol Effects Over Global Oceans, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing,, Volume 46, Issue 6, June 2008 Page(s):1728 - 1732- (pdf file)

58) Jones, T. A., and S. A. Christopher (2008), Seasonal variation in satellite-derived effects of aerosols on clouds in the Arabian Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D09207, doi:10.1029/2007JD009118. (pdf file)

57) Patadia, F., P. Gupta, and S. A. Christopher (2008), First observational estimates of global clear sky shortwave aerosol direct radiative effect over land, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L04810, doi:10.1029/2007GL032314. - (pdf file)

56) S.A. Christopher, and T. A. Jones, Dust Radiative Effect over Global Oceans, IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 5(1), 74-77, 2008. (pdf file)

Gupta, P., Particulate matter air quality assessment over South Eastern United States using Satellite and Ground Measurements, Ph.D. Dissertation, UAHuntsville, Department of Atmospheric Science, Advisor, Dr. Sundar Christopher, (pdf file

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2007 (7)  

55) Greenwald, T.J., T.L'Ecuyer, and S.A. Christopher, Global error characteristics of microwave-based estimates of cloud liquid water path,  Geophysical Research Letters, L22807, doi:10.1029/2007GL031180, 2007 (pdf file)

54) Jones, T. A., and S. A. Christopher (2007), MODIS derived fine mode fraction characteristics of marine, dust, and anthropogenic aerosols over the ocean, constrained by GOCART, MOPITT, and TOMS, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D22204, doi:10.1029/2007JD008974 (pdf file)

53) T. A. Jones, and S.A. Christopher, Statistical Uncertainty of Top of Atmosphere Cloud-free Shortwave Aerosol radiative Effect,  Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion, 7, 2937-2948, 2007  (pdf file)

52) Jones, T. A., and S. A. Christopher (2007), Is the top of atmosphere dust net radiative effect different between Terra and Aqua?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02812, doi:10.1029/2006GL028262 (pdf file)

51) Christopher, S. A., and T. Jones (2007), Satellite-based assessment of cloud-free net radiative effect of dust aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L02810, doi:10.1029/2006GL027783. (pdf file)

50) P. Gupta, S. A. Christopher, M.A. Box, and G.P. Box, Multi year satellite remote sensing of particulate matter air quality over Sydney, Australia, International J. Remote Sensing, doi:10.1080/01431160701241738, 2007. (pdf file)

49) Nair, U. S., D. K. Ray, J. Wang, S. A. Christopher, T. J. Lyons, R. M. Welch, and R. A. Pielke, Sr. (2007), Observational estimates of radiative forcing due to land use change in southwest Australia, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D09117, doi:10.1029/2006JD007505 (pdf file). 

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2006 (5)  

48) Gupta, P., S.A. Christopher, J. Wang, R. Gehrig, Y.C. Lee, N. Kumar, Satellite Remote Sensing of Particulate Matter and Air Quality over Global Cities, Atmospheric Environment, 40, 5880-5892, 2006. (pdf file) - {is one of the "Top-50 most cited articles" published in Atmospheric Environment January 2006 - February 2011}.

47) Christopher, S. A., J. Zhang, Y. J. Kaufman, and L. A. Remer (2006), Satellite-based assessment of top of atmosphere anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing over cloud-free oceans, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L15816, doi:10.1029/2005GL025535. (pdf file)

46) Wang, J., S. A. Christopher, U. S. Nair, J. S. Reid, E. M. Prins, J. Szykman, and J. L. Hand (2006), Mesoscale modeling of Central American smoke transport to the United States: 1. “Top-down” assessment of emission strength and diurnal variation impacts, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D05S17, doi:10.1029/2005JD006416 (pdf file)

45) Wang, J., and S. A. Christopher (2006), Mesoscale modeling of Central American smoke transport to the United States: 2. Smoke radiative impact on regional surface energy budget and boundary layer evolution, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D14S92, doi:10.1029/2005JD006720.  (pdf file)

44) H. Yu, Y. J. Kaufman, M. Chin, G. Feingold, L. A. Remer, T. L. Anderson, Y. Balkanski, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, S. A. Christopher, P. DeCola, R. Kahn, D. Koch, N. Loeb, M. S. Reddy, M. Schulz, T. Takemura, M. Zhou, A review of measurement-based assessment of aerosol direct radiative effect and forcing,  Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 613-666, 2006. (pdf file) 

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2005 (4)   

43) Zhang, J., S.A. Christopher, L.A. Remer and Y.J. Kaufman, Shortwave Aerosol Cloud-Free Radiative Forcing from Terra, I: Angular Models for Aerosols,  J. Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, D10, S23, doi:10.1029/2004jd005008, 2005. (pdf file)

42) Zhang, J., S.A. Christopher, L.A. Remer and Y.J. Kaufman, Shortwave Aerosol Cloud-Free Radiative Forcing from Terra, II : Global and Seasonal Distributions,  J. Geophysical Research-Atmospheres , D10, S24, doi:10.1029/2004jd005009, 2005. (pdf file)

41) Ramachandran, R., S. A. Christopher, S. Mova, X. Li, H. Conover, K. Keiser, S. Graves, Richard McNider, Earth Science Markup Language: A Solution to Address Data Format Heterogeneity Problems in Atmospheric Sciences,  Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, 86(6), 791-794. (pdf file),2005.

40) Anderson, T.L., R.J., Charlson, N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, M. Chin, S.A. Christopher, H.J. Haywood, Y.J. Kaufman, S. Kinne, J. Ogren, L.A. Remer, T. Takemura, D. Tanre, O. Torres, C.R.Trepte, B.A. Wielicki, D. Winker, H. Yu, A-Train strategy for quantifying direct aerosol forcing of climate: Step-wise development of an observational basis for aerosol optical depth, aerosol forcing efficiency, and aerosol anthropogenic fraction,  Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, (pdf file), 2005, 1795-1809. 

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2004 (6) 

39) Christopher, S. A., and J. Zhang (2004), Cloud-free shortwave aerosol radiative effect over oceans: Strategies for identifying anthropogenic forcing from Terra satellite measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18101, doi:10.1029/2004GL020510.(pdf file)

38) Christopher, S. A. and J. Wang (2004), Intercomparison between MISR and Sunphotometer AOT in Dust Source Regions over China: Implication for satellite retrievals and radiative forcing calculations, Tellus B, 56(5), 451-456 (pdf file)*

37) Wang, J., U. Nair, and S.A. Christopher (2004), GOES-8 Aerosol Optical Thickness Assimilation in a Mesoscale Model: Online Integration of Aerosol Radiative Effects,    J. Geophysical Research-Atmospheres,  Vol. 109, No. D23, D23203 04 (pdf file)

36) Reid, J. S., E. M. Prins, D. L. Westphal, C. C. Schmidt, K. A. Richardson, S. A. Christopher, T. F. Eck, E. A. Reid, C. A. Curtis, and J. P. Hoffman (2004), Real-time monitoring of South American smoke particle emissions and transport using a coupled remote sensing/box-model approach, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L06107, doi:10.1029/2003GL018845. (pdf file)

35) J. Wang, J., X. Xia, P. Wang, and S. A. Christopher (2004), Diurnal variability of dust aerosol optical thickness and Angstr?m exponent over dust source regions in China, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L08107, doi:10.1029/2004GL019580. (pdf file)

34) Jeffrey S. Reid, Thomas F. Eck, S. A. Christopher, Ralf Koppmann, Oleg Dubovik, Daniel P. Eleuterio, Brent N. Holben, Elizabeth A. Reid, Jianglong Zhang, A Review of Biomass Burning Emissions Part III: Intensive Optical Properties of Biomass Burning Particles,  Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, Vol. 4, pp 5201-5260, 8-9-2004, (pdf file)

Zhang, J., (2004), Satellite Remote Sensing of Aerosol Radiative Forcing over Global Oceans, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Advisor, Sundar A. Christopher, (pdf file-2113 KB). - Dissertation

*'This is an electronic version of an article published in Tellus B: complete citation information for the final version of the paper, as published in the print edition of Tellus B, is available on the Blackwell Synergy online delivery service, accessible via the journal's website at and 

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2003 (9) 

33) Wang, J., X. Liu, S. A. Christopher, J. S. Reid, E. Reid, and H. Maring, The effects of non-sphericity on geostationary satellite retrievals of dust aerosols, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(24), 2293, doi:10.1029/2003GL018697, 2003 (pdf file)

32) Zhang, J., and S.A. Christopher, Longwave Radiative Forcing of Dust Aerosols over the Saharan Desert estimated from MODIS, MISR, and CERES observations from Terra, Geophysical Research Letters, 30(23), doi:10.1029/2003GL018479 , 2003 (pdf file)

31) Wang, J., and S. A. Christopher, Intercomparison between satellite-derived aerosol optical thickness and PM2.5 mass: Implications for air quality studies, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(21), 2095, doi:10.1029/2003GL018174, 2003 (pdf file)

30) Wang, J., S A. Christopher, F. Brechtel, J. Kim, B. Schmid, J. Redemann, P. B.  Russell, Patricia Quinn and B. N. Holben, Geostationary Satellite Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Thickness during ACE-Asia,  J. Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, No. D23, 8657, 10.1029/2003JD003580, 30 August 2003. (pdf file)

29) Wang, J; Christopher, S. A.; Reid, J.S.; Maring, H.; Savoie, D.; Holben, B.N.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Yang, S-K., GOES 8 retrieval of dust aerosol optical thickness over the Atlantic Ocean during PRIDE, J. Geophys. Res. Vol. 108,  No.  D19,  8595, 10.1029/2002JD002494, (pdf file)

28) Christopher, S.A., J. Wang, Q. Ji and S-C. Tsay, Estimation of Shortwave Dust Aerosol Radiative forcing during PRIDE, J. Geophys.  Res., 108(D19), 8956, doi:10.1029/2002JD002787, 2003, (pdf file)

27) Reid, J. S., D. L. Westphal, J. M. Livingston, H. H. Jonsson, J. E. Kinney, E. J. Welton, Smirnov, M. Meier, D. L. Savoie, H. B. Maring, S.C. Tsay, S. A. Christopher, and D. P. Eleuterio, and E. A. Reid. Measurements of  Saharan dust by airborne and ground-based remote sensing methods during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment (PRIDE), J. Geophys. Res., 108(D19), 8593, doi:10.1029/2002JD002485, 2003 (pdf file)

26) Livingston, J.M., J. Redemann, J. S. Reid, P. B. Russell, B. Schmid, D. Allen, O. Torres, R. C. Levy, L. A. Remer, B. N. Holben, A. Smirnov, O. Dubovik, E. J. Welton, J. Campbell, R. Kahn, S. A. Christopher, J. Wang., Airborne sunphotometer measurements of aerosol optical depth and columnar water vapor during the Puerto Rico Dust Experiment, and comparison with land, aircraft, and satellite measurements, J. Geophys. Res. 2003,   Vol. 108, No. D19, 8588, 10.1029/2002JD002520, (pdf file)

25) Liu, X,, Wang, J, and S. A. Christopher, 2003: Shortwave direct radiative forcing of dust  aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean.   Int. J. Rem. Sensing, 24(24), 5147-5160, (pdf file)

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2002 (4) 

24) Christopher, S. A., and J. Zhang, 2002: Shortwave aerosol radiative forcing from MODIS and CERES observations over the oceans.   Geophysical Research Letters,  29(18), 1859 - doi: 10.1029/2002GL014803 -18 September 2002, (pdf file)

23) Christopher, S. A., J. Zhang, B. N. Holben, and S-K. Yang: GOES-8 and NOAA-14 AVHRR Retrieval of Smoke Aerosol Optical Thickness during  SCAR-B, Int. J. Remote Sensing, 23,(22), 4931-4944. (pdf file)

22) Christopher, S. A., and J. Zhang, Daytime variation of shortwave direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols from GOES 8 imager.  J. Atmos. Sci., 59(2), 681-691, 2002. (pdf file)

21) Greenwald, T. J., and S. A. Christopher, Effect of cold clouds on Satellite Measurements near 183 GHZ. J. Geophys. Res, 107, 101029-  (pdf file)

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2001 (2) 

20) Zhang, J., S. A. Christopher, and B. Holben, Intercomparison of aerosol optical thickness derived from GOES-8 Imager and Ground-Based Sun Photometers, J. Geophysical Res., 106, 7387-7398, 2001 (pdf version)

19) Chan, C. Y. ; Chan, L. Y. ; Zheng, Y. G. ; Harris, J. M. ; Oltmans, S. J. ; Christopher, S,Effects of 1997 Indonesian forest fires on tropospheric ozone enhancement, radiative forcing, and temperature change over the Hong Kong region, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 14875-14886, 2001 (pdf file)

Peer Reviewed Publications - 2000 (5) 

18) Christopher, S.A., X. Li, R.M. Welch, P.V. Hobbs, J.S. Reid, and T. F. Eck. Estimation of Downward and top-of-atmosphere Shortwave Irradiances in Biomass Burning Regions during SCAR-B. J. Appl. Meteorology, 39, 1742-1753, 2000. (pdf file)

17) Li, X., S.A. Christopher, J. Chou, and R.M. Welch, Estimation of shortwave direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols using angular dependence models. J. Appl. Meteor., 39, 2278-2291, 2000. (pdf file)

16) Greenwald, T. J., and S. A. Christopher, The GOES-IM Imagers: New Tools for studying the microphysical properties of boundary layers clouds. Bulletin of Amer. Meteorol. Soc, 81, 2607-2620, 2000. (pdf file)

15) Christopher, S.A., J. Chou, J. Zhang, X. Li and R.M. Welch, Shortwave Direct Radiative Forcing of Biomass Burning Aerosols Estimated From VIRS and CERES. Geophys. Res. Letters, 27,2197-2000, 2000. (pdf file)

14) L. Y. Chan, C. Y. Chan, S.A. Christopher, H. Y. Liu, S. J. Oltmans, and J. M. Harris, A Case Study on the Biomass Burning in Southeast Asia and Enhancement of Tropospheric Ozone over Hong Kong, Geophys. Res. Letters, 27,1479-1482, 2000. (pdf file)

Peer Reviewed Publications - 1999 (3)

13) Reid, J.S., T. Eck, S.A. Christopher, B. Holben, and P. Hobbs, Use of the Angstrom Exponent to Estimate the Variability of Optical and Physical Properties of Aging Smoke Particles in Brazil, J. Geophys. Res. 104 27,473-27490,1999. (pdf file)

12) Greenwald T.J., and S.A. Christopher, Daytime variation of Marine Stratocumulus Properties as observed from Geostationary Satellite, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1723-1726, 1999. (pdf file)

11) Greenwald, T.J., Christopher, S.A., J. Chou, and J. Liljegren, Intercomparison of Cloud Liquid Water Path Derived From the GOES-9 Imager and Ground Based Microwave Radiometers, J. Geophys. Res, 104, 9251-9260, 1999. (pdf file)

Peer Reviewed Publications - 1998: (4)

10)Kaufman, Y.J., P. V. Hobbs, V.W.J.H. Kirchoff, P. Artaxo, L.A. Remer, B.N. Holben, M.D. Ki ng, E.M. Prins, D.E. Ward, K.M. Longo, L. F. Mattos, C.A. Nobre, J.D. Spinhirne, Q. Ji, A.M. Thompson, J.F. Gleason, S.A. Christopher, and S.C. Tsay. The Smoke, Clouds and Radiation Experiment in Brazil (SCAR-B). J. Geophys. Res., 103, D24, 31, 783-31808, 1998. (pdf file)

9) Christopher, S.A., M. Wang, T.A. Berendes, R. M. Welch, and S.K. Yang, The 1985 biomass burning season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of fires, smoke, and regional radiative energy budgets. J. Appl. Meteor., 37, 661-678, 1998. (July, 1998) (pdf file)

8) Christopher, S.A., D. Kliche, V.S. Connors, and R.M. Welch, Satellite investigations of fires, smoke and Carbon Monoxide during the April 1994 MAPS missions, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D15), 19237-19336, 1998. (pdf file)

7) Weiss, J.M., S.A. Christopher, and R.M. Welch, Automated contrail detection and segmentation. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Engineering, 36(5), 1609-1619, 1998. (pdf file)

Peer Reviewed Publications - 1997 (2) 

6) Greenwald, T.J., S.A. Christopher, and J. Chou, Cloud liquid water path comparisons from passive microwave and solar reflectance satellite measurements: Assessment of sub-field-of-view cloud effects in microwave retrievals. J. Geophys. Res. 102, D16, 19585-19597, 1997. (pdf file)

5) Christopher, S.A., and J. Chou, The potential of the AVHRR GAC land Pathfinder data for aerosol and earth radiation budget studies. Int. J. Rem. Sensing, 18(12), 2657-2676, 1997. (pdf file)

Peer Reviewed Publications - 1996 (2)

4) Christopher, S.A, D.V. Kiche, and R.M. Welch, AVHRR and ERBE investigations of biomass burning in the tropics, to appear in Global Biomass Burning, Ed, J.S. Levine, MIT Press, 1996.

3) Christopher, S. A., D.V. Kliche, J. Chou, and R.M. Welch, First Estimates of the Radiative Forcing of Aerosols Generated from Biomass burning Using Satellite Data. J. Geophys. Res., 101, D16, 21265-21273, 1996.

Peer Reviewed Publications- 1995   (2) 

2) T. J. Greenwald, G.L. Stephens, S.A. Christopher and T.H. Vonder Haar, Observations of the Global Characterisitcs and Regional Radiative Effects of Marine Cloud Liquid Water, J. Climate, 8(12), 2928-2946, 1995.

1) Musil, D. J., S. A. Christopher, R. A. Deola, and P. L. Smith, Some Interiro Observations of South Eastern Montana hailstorms, J. Appl. Meteor., 30, 1596-1612,1991.

Christopher, S.A., Cloud radiative forcing in the tropics, Ph.D. Dissertation, available from UMI press, 168 pp, 1995.